Can He Break His Fast And Shorten His Prayer Even If He stayed there for a year?
A man travelled outside the kingdom of (Saudi Arabia) and he is from the people of Makkah; so what is the ruling on him if he breaks his fast and shortens his prayer until he returns, even if he stayed (in his place of travel) for a year?
For instance: if he resides in a land for the purpose of studying-to study medicine or something else- it is neither permissible for him to break his fast nor shorten his prayers because the ruling on (him) is that of a resident. However, if you are from those just passing quickly (i.e. travelling), there is no harm in breaking the fast and shortening the prayer. Meaning: you are just passing through this land and are not residing there except for a day or two, or three days, and then proceeding to another land to fulfill a need over there; or you’re on a tour and just staying for two to three days, then there is no harm in breaking the fast and shortening the prayer. This is what the Islamic Legislation came with. As for taking out five months, ten months, a year or two in the name of studying or other than it, and then saying that you will break the fast and shorten the prayer, this is neither correct nor permissible.
[Source: Al-Fataawaa Wad-Duroos Fil Masjidil Haraam of Shaikh Abdullaah Bin Muhammad Bin Humaid (rahimahullaah); page: 486]