[J] Preserving Security- a Comprehensive Statement of Shaikhul Islaam about Fighting during Fitna and the Murder of Al-Husayn [radiyallaahu-anhu]
Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool (may Allaah preserve him) continued to quote Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah as follows…..
And because of this (i.e. the destructive effects of Khurooj and fighting during fitna), Ahlus Sunnah established that fighting must be abandoned due to the authentic established narrations reported from the Prophet [sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam (related to this subject matter)]. So they began to mention this in their (books) of creed, commanded (the Ummah) to exercise patience (in facing) the tyranny of the rulers and refrain from fighting against them, even though many people among the people of knowledge fought during fitna.
The subject matter related to fighting the transgressors, commanding good and forbidding evil bears a resemblance to (or is confused with) fighting during fitna, but this is not the place to elaborate on it. And whoever contemplates on the authentic established narrations reported from the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) in this subject matter and examines them thoroughly in the manner that the people of clear-sightedness examine them, he will know that what has been transmitted in the Prophetic texts of the Sharee’ah is the best in all affairs. So due to this, when Al-Husayn wanted to go to the people of Iraq after they wrote him many letters, the virtuous people of knowledge -such as Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbaas and Abu Bakr Ibn Abdir Rahmaan Bin Haarith Bin Hishaam- told him not to go, and they were convinced that he would be killed. Some of them even said: ‘’I place you in Allaah’s Trust (to protect you from) being killed’’. And some of them said: “Had it not been for (fear of dishonouring or disgracing you), we would have restrained and prevented you from going”.
So they advised him sincerely regarding this affair – out of seeking after his wellbeing and that of the Muslims. Indeed, Allaah and His Messenger command rectification and not corruption; but a person’s opinion is correct sometimes times and wrong at other times. So what those people [i.e. Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbaas, Abu Bakr Ibn Abdir-Rahmaan Bin Haarith Bin Hishaam (radiyallaahu-anhum)] said to him [i.e. al-Husayn (radiyallaahu-anhu)] became manifest (i.e. that they feared for his life), and there was no benefit in (travelling to Iraq to fight)- neither a religious nor worldly benefit; rather those oppressive transgressors were able to gain the upper hand against the grandson of Allaah’s Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) until they oppressively killed him and he died a martyr. His departure (to Iraq) and being murdered brought about corruption which would not have occurred had he stayed in his country. Indeed he did not obtain anything from the good he intended and the evil he (desired) to repel, rather his departure to (Iraq) and being killed brought about a decrease in good and became a cause of great evil.
The murder of Al-Husayn (radiyallaahu-anhu) was something that necessitated trial, just as the murder of Uthmaan (radiyallaahu-anhu) necessitated trial. All this manifests (or clarifies) that what the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) commanded in relation to exercising patience with the tyranny of the rulers and to refrain from fighting and rebelling against them, is the most beneficial of all affairs for the slaves in the affairs of their worldly life and afterlife. The one who opposes this intentionally or mistakenly will not receive rectification by way of this (rebellion), rather he receives corruption.
This why the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) praised Al-Hasan, saying: “Indeed, this son of mine is a Sayyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allaah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him’’. He (sallal laahu alayhi wasallam) neither praised anyone for fighting in times of fitna nor due to rebellion against the rulers; neither due to one’s disobedience to the rulers nor distancing himself from the Jamaa’ah. The narrations of the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) established in the authentic (books of Hadeeth) demonstrates this affair.
Al Bukhaari (rahimahullaah) reports from Al Hasan Al Basri (rahimahullaah) who reported that Abu Bakr (radiyallaahu-anhu) said that he heard Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) saying on the pulpit whilst Al-Hasan (radiyallaahu-anhu) was by his side, and the Prophet (sallal-laahu alayhi-wasallam) was looking once at the people and once at Al-Hasan, saying: “Indeed, this son of mine is a Sayyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allaah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him’’[Bukhaari Number 2704].
So the Prophet informed us that Al-Hasan is a Sayyid (a noble one) and what the Prophet said became a reality- that Allaah brought about peace between two big groups of Muslims through him. This clarifies the fact that bringing about reconciliation between the two groups was something desired, praiseworthy and loved by Allaah and His Messenger. And what Al Hasan did is one of his greatest virtues and (a proof of his) high status due to which the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) praised him. Had it been that fighting (during fitna) is obligatory or recommended, the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) would not have praised anyone for abandoning an obligation or a recommendation.
And because of this, the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) did not praise anyone who participated in fighting at the battle of Al-Jamal and Siffeen, let alone what took place in Madeenah on the day of Al-Harrah; and neither (is there any praise in relation to) the siege against Ibn Zubayr, nor what took place in the fitna of Ibn Al-Ash’ath, Ibn Al-Muhallab and other than them; rather it has been reported from the Prophet though sizable number of narrators that the khawaarij are to be fought – those whom Ali [Ameerul Mumineen] fought at Nahrawaan after they rebelled against him at Harooraa. The narrations in the Sunnah reported from the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) shows in detail that they (i.e. Khawaarij) are to be fought against. Therefore, when Ali fought them, he was happy that they were fought and he narrated ahaadeeth about them. All the Sahaabah agreed to fight them and likewise the Imaams of the people of knowledge after them. They did not consider this fighting (against the Khawaarij) a fitna, as opposed to the fighting at Al-Jamal, As-Siffeen and other incidents of fighting which has no text to justify them- neither through the consensus of the scholars (of Ahlus Sunnah) nor were those incidents of fighting praised by those virtuous people who participated in them, rather they were regretful (afterwards) and abandoned it.
Likewise, Al Hasan always used to indicate to his father and brother (Al Husayn) to abandon fighting. And when the affair was left in his (jurisdiction), he abandoned fighting and brought about peace between the two fighting parties. Likewise, it became clear to Ali [radiyallaahu-anhu] in the latter part of the affair that to abandon fighting contained more benefit than fighting, Also, Al-Husayn (radiyallaahu-anhu) was not murdered except due to being oppressed and killed as a martyr, after he abandoned seeking after authority and sought to return to his country, or to the seaport, or to be taken to Yazeed the ruler.
To be continued…InShaaAllaah
[Source: Silsilah Ar-Rasaa’il Al-Manhajiyyah Fin-Nus’hi Wal-Irshaad Wat-taw’iyah’ pages 30-33 abridged and slightly paraphrased]