The Difference Between Jarh (Refutation) and Nush (Advice) – by Shaikh Muqbil
The Difference between Jarh and Nush
Shaikh Muqbil Bin Haadee Al-Waadi-ee (rahimahullaah) was asked: ‘’what is the difference between refutation and advice?’’
So he (rahimahullaah) replied: The difference between refutation and advice is that advice can be (given) in secret between the adviser and the advised, and it takes place with gentleness and mildness; ‘’And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allaah).’’ [Taahaa Ayah 44]
As for refutation, it can be written in books and mentioned in gatherings, and our predecessor scholars combined between this and that (i.e. Jarh and Naseehah). Imaam Adh-Dhahabee (rahimahullaah) said: ‘’Ratanun; (i.e. referring to Ibn Kirbaan bin Ratanin Al-Bat-randiy) and what will make you know who Ratanun is? He is a liar from the liars; he claimed suhbah (i.e. that he was a companion of the Prophet) after six hundred years.’’ Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah) said about Jaabir Al-Ju’fiy, ‘’I have not seen a greater liar than him.’’
Shaikh Muqbil was also asked: ‘’Is everyone who errs mentioned with the principle of Jarh Wat- Tadeel or is there detailed explanation in the affair; some of them are disparaged and others are advice?’’
To proceed: The Ulamaa and before them the Sahaabah erred; Shaikhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) has mentioned some this in his book (Raf-ul Malaam Anil A-immatul A’laam) and he mentioned a mistake or mistakes of Abu Bakr.
Abu Bakr (radiyallaahu-anhu) said: ‘’O Messenger of Allaah! Appoint such and such as Amir.’’ Umar said: ‘’O Messenger of Allaah! Appoint such and such as Amir (i.e. another man other than the one suggested by AbuBakr). So AbuBakr said to Umar: ‘’You did not wish except to oppose me.’’ Umar said: ‘’I did not wish to oppose you.’’ Their voices were raised (whilst they spoke in the presence of the Messenger), so Allaah (Subhaanahu-Wata-Aalaa) revealed the (ayah): ‘’O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Allaah and His Messenger, and fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is All-Hearing, All Knowing. O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds should be rendered fruitless while you perceive not.’’ [Al-Hujuraat: Ayaat: 1-2]
Likewise, is the statement of Allaah: ‘’Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord and follow not any Awliyaa (protectors and helpers) besides Him.’’ (Araaf: Ayah:3]
However, this mistake is not in Aqeedah. The scholar has good deeds and indeed (his goods deeds) outweigh in comparison to (his) mistake (s).
Who is it that never erred and who is it that only has good deeds?
The ulama (rahimahumullaah) have made mistakes, such as in Al-Muhallaa of Abee Muhammad Bin Hazm and in his book Ihkaamul-Ahkaam and in Nayl al-Awtaar of Ash-Shawkaanee, but these (mistakes) are outweighed in comparison to that which (these scholars) have of virtue. As for mistakes in Aqeedah or lies against the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam), indeed the scholars make it clear and give severe warning against it.
As for the affair of advice to the one who has erred, this is an important affair. In (Bukhaari and Muslim) from Jareer Bin Abdillaah al-Bajalee (radiyallaahu-anhu) who said: ‘’we gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) that we will listen and obey, establish the prayer, and give the zakaah and give advice to every Muslim.’’ And in saheeh Muslim Tameem Ad-Daaree (radiyallaahu-anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) said: ‘’Indeed, the religion is sincere advice.’’ Rather Allaah has stated about some of His Prophets that they said (to their people): ‘’and I give sincere advice to you’’ [A’raaf: Ayah: 62]
The scholars have not ceased to advice one another and give clarifications on mistakes, alongside that which the scholar has of virtue. If this (advice) is needed, then there is no harm in that and Allaah’s Aid is sought.
Source: Ithaaf al-khaleel: page57